What are sexually transmitted diseases?
Sexually transmitted disease (STDs), commonly known as venereal diseases, are infections that are spread primarily through person-to-person sexual contact including vaginal, anal and oral sex. The organisms causing STDs can also be spread through non-sexual means such as blood transfer. Common STDs such as chlamydia, gonorrhoeae, hepatitis B, HIV, HPV, HSV2 and syphilis—can also be transmitted from mother to child during pregnancy and childbirth. Around one million people worldwide develop sexually transmitted diseases every day, and most of them do not have any symptoms at an early stage.
More than half of those tested for STDs were infected with a single and multiple disease sources. During the incubation period, the source of STDs will be easily transmitted to sexual partners, thus causing multiple infections.
What causes the sexually transmitted diseases?
Chlamydia can survive for about 30 hours and invade the body through mucous membranes. Not only will it affect the sexual organs and reproductive system which causes pain, but it may also spread to other organs, resulting in complications, infertility and even death.
Ninety percent of women with chlamythetic infection and fifty percent of men with chlamythetic infection do not appear with significant symptoms in the early stages. STD pathogens such as Trichomonas vaginalis, Mycoplasma Genitalium, Urealyticum, Ureaplasma and Herpesgenitalis usually lurk for a long time before the disease develops. People infected with such STDs will unconsciously transmit the pathogens to their sexual partners during this incubation period.
What happens if sexually transmitted diseases are not treated?
People tend to overlook the asymptomatic pathogens when they’re co-infected with symptomatic ones. While the ones with symptoms are treated, the asymptomatic ones are usually left unnoticed, leading to serious consequences, e.g., premature labour, still-births, pelvic inflammatory disease, prostate cancer, eye infection in new-born baby, infertility etc. If not treated properly, some STIs can lead to serious health problems and increase your chances of getting HIV by 300 times#.
What is the test for?
This test detects a wide range of STD pathogens (including Trichomonas vaginalis, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma hominis, Urealyticum, Ureaplasma parvum, HSV1/2, HPV 6/11) with the use of PCR and “Flow through” hybridization.
Who should consider the test?
|Sexually active individual|
|People who have unprotected sex|
|People who have multi sex partner|
|People who have persistent STD infection|
|People who start sexual activities at an early age|
|People who use alcohol or drugs|
|Test Code||Methodology||Specimen Requirements||Turnaround Time|
|ST8||DNA Flow-through hybridization||Genital specimen in 20 mL ThinPrep or 10 mL SurePath; or swabs; or urine||3 working days|
|ISP||DNA Flow-through hybridization||Self-sampling device||3 working days|
Sample requirements and handling instruction
|Sample Type||Pre-sampling Preparation||Sample Collection|
|Urine||Patient is advised not to urinate for at least two hours prior to specimen collection||Collect 10 - 30 ml of first void urine in a clean container and close tightly|
|Swab||No particular requirement||Dacron-, rayon- or calcium alginate-tipped plastic or non-aluminum swabs can be used|
|Liquid-based cytology specimen||No particular requirement||Samples should be collected using a cervical broom and placed in liquid-based cytology preservative|
Storage and Transportation Conditions
|Sample should be stored at 2 - 8oC (for urine and swab) and room temperature (for Liquid-based cytology specimen)|
|Sample may be stored at room temperature for up to 8 hours during transportation|
|Sample without proper labeling|
|Sample not in requested format or insufficient quantity|
|Sample in expired container|
|Sampling date is more than: 14 days for liquid-based cytology specimen; or 7 days for urine / swab specimen|
|Test request form without / with mismatched patient identification information|
Factor(s) known to affect results
|Improper collection, handling and storage of specimen|
|Presence of inhibitor|
- # FHI : https://www.fhi360.org/sites/default/files/webpages/Modules/STD/s1pg12.htm